IPC Classification

Class code (prefix) Descriptions Number of results
B01B Boiling; boiling apparatus
B01D Separation
B01F Mixing, e.g. dissolving, emulsifying or dispersing
B01J Chemical or physical processes, e.g. catalysis or colloid chemistry; their relevant apparatus
B01L Chemical or physical laboratory apparatus for general use
B02B Preparing grain for milling; refining granular fruit to commercial products by working the surface
B02C Crushing, pulverising, or disintegrating in general; milling grain
B03B Separating solid materials using liquids or using pneumatic tables or jigs
B03C Magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids; separation by high-voltage electric fields
B03D Flotation; differential sedimentation
B04B Centrifuges
B04C Apparatus using free vortex flow, e.g. cyclones
B05B Spraying apparatus; atomising apparatus; nozzles
B05C Apparatus for applying fluent materials to surfaces, in general
B05D Processes for applying fluent materials to surfaces, in general
B06B Generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations in general
B07B Separating solids from solids by sieving, screening, sifting or by using gas currents; separating by other dry methods applicable to bulk material, e.g. loose articles fit to be handled like bulk material
B07C Postal sorting; sorting individual articles, or bulk material fit to be sorted piece-meal, e.g. by picking
B08B Cleaning in general; prevention of fouling in general
B09B Disposal of solid waste
B09C Reclamation of contaminated soil
B21B Rolling of metal
B21C Manufacture of metal sheets, wire, rods, tubes, profiles or like semi-manufactured products otherwise than by rolling; auxiliary operations used in connection with metal-working without essentially removing material
B21D Working or processing of sheet metal or metal tubes, rods or profiles without essentially removing material; punching metal
B21F Working or processing of metal wire
B21G Making needles, pins or nails of metal
B21H Making particular metal objects by rolling, e.g. screws, wheels, rings, barrels, balls
B21J Forging; hammering; pressing metal; riveting; forge furnaces
B21K Making forged or pressed metal products, e.g. horse-shoes, rivets, bolts or wheels
B21L Making metal chains
B22C Foundry moulding
B22D Casting of metals; casting of other substances by the same processes or devices
B22F Working metallic powder; manufacture of articles from metallic powder; making metallic powder; apparatus or devices specially adapted for metallic powder
B23B Turning; boring
B23C Milling
B23D Planing; slotting; shearing; broaching; sawing; filing; scraping; like operations for working metal by removing material, not otherwise provided for
B23F Making gears or toothed racks
B23G Thread cutting; working of screws, bolt heads or nuts, in conjunction therewith
B23H Working of metal by the action of a high concentration of electric current on a workpiece using an electrode which takes the place of a tool; such working combined with other forms of working of metal
B23K Soldering or unsoldering; welding; cladding or plating by soldering or welding; cutting by applying heat locally, e.g. flame cutting; working by laser beam
B23P Metal-working not otherwise provided for; combined operations; universal machine tools
B23Q Details, components, or accessories for machine tools, e.g. arrangements for copying or controlling; machine tools in general, characterised by the construction of particular details or components; combinations or associations of metal-working machines, not directed to a particular result
B24B Machines, devices, or processes for grinding or polishing; dressing or conditioning of abrading surfaces; feeding of grinding, polishing, or lapping agents
B24C Abrasive or related blasting with particulate material
B24D Tools for grinding, buffing or sharpening
B25B Tools or bench devices not otherwise provided for, for fastening, connecting, disengaging, or holding
B25C Hand-held nailing or stapling tools; manually-operated portable stapling tools
B25D Percussive tools
B25F Combination or multi-purpose tools not otherwise provided for; details or components of portable power-driven tools not particularly related to the operations performed and not otherwise provided for
B25G Handles for hand implements
B25H Workshop equipment, e.g. for marking-out work; storage means for workshops
B25J Manipulators; chambers provided with manipulation devices
B26B Hand-held cutting tools not otherwise provided for
B26D Cutting; details common to machines for perforating, punching, cutting-out, stamping-out or severing
B26F Perforating; punching; cutting-out; stamping-out; severing by means other than cutting
B27B Saws for wood or similar material; components or accessories therefor
B27C Planing, drilling, milling, turning or universal machines for wood or similar material 
B27D Working veneer or plywood
B27F Dovetailed work; tenons; slotting machines for wood or similar material; nailing or stapling machines
B27G Accessory machines or apparatus for working wood or similar materials; tools for working wood or similar materials; safety devices for wood working machines or tools
B27H Bending wood or similar material; cooperage; making wheels from wood or similar material
B27J Mechanical working of cane, cork, or similar materials
B27K Processes, apparatus or selection of substances for impregnating, staining, dyeing or bleaching of wood, or for treating of wood with permeant liquids, not otherwise provided for; chemical or physical treatment of cork, cane, reed, straw or similar materials
B27L Removing bark or vestiges of branches; splitting wood; manufacture of veneer, wooden sticks, wood shavings, wood fibres or wood powder
B27M Working of wood not provided for in subclasses ; manufacture of specific wooden articles
B27N Manufacture by dry processes of articles, with or without organic binding agents, made from particles or fibres consisting of wood or other lignocellulosic or like organic material
B28B Shaping clay or other ceramic compositions; shaping slag; shaping mixtures containing cementitious material, e.g. plaster
B28C Preparing clay; producing mixtures containing clay or cementitious material, e.g. plaster
B28D Working stone or stone-like materials
B29B Preparation or pretreatment of the material to be shaped; making granules or preforms; recovery of plastics or other constituents of waste material containing plastics
B29C Shaping or joining of plastics; shaping of material in a plastic state, not otherwise provided for; after-treatment of the shaped products, e.g. repairing
B29D Producing particular articles from plastics or from substances in a plastic state
B29K Indexing scheme associated with subclasses , or , relating to moulding materials or to materials for reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts
B29L Indexing scheme associated with subclass , relating to particular articles
B30B Presses in general; presses not otherwise provided for
B31B Making containers of paper, cardboard or material worked in a manner analogous to paper
B31C Making wound articles, e.g. wound tubes, of paper, cardboard or material worked in a manner analogous to paper
B31D Making articles of paper, cardboard or material worked in a manner analogous to paper, not provided for in subclasses or
B31F Mechanical working or deformation of paper, cardboard or material worked in a manner analogous to paper
B32B Layered products, i.e. products built-up of strata of flat or non-flat, e.g. cellular or honeycomb, form
B33Y Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3d] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3d printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
B41B Machines or accessories for making, setting, or distributing type; type; photographic or photoelectronic composing devices
B41C Processes for the manufacture or reproduction of printing surfaces
B41D Apparatus for the mechanical reproduction of printing surfaces for stereotype printing; shaping elastic or deformable material to form printing surfaces
B41F Printing machines or presses
B41G Apparatus for bronze printing, line printing, or for bordering or edging sheets or like articles; auxiliary apparatus for perforating in conjunction with printing
B41J Typewriters; selective printing mechanisms, i.e. mechanisms printing otherwise than from a forme; correction of typographical errors
B41K Stamps; stamping or numbering apparatus or devices
B41L Apparatus or devices for manifolding, duplicating or printing for office or other commercial purposes; addressing machines or like series-printing machines
B41M Printing, duplicating, marking, or copying processes; colour printing
B41N Printing plates or foils; materials for surfaces used in printing machines for printing, inking, damping, or the like; preparing such surfaces for use or conserving them
B42B Permanently attaching together sheets, quires, or signatures, or permanently attaching objects thereto
B42C Bookbinding
B42D Books; book covers; loose leaves; printed matter characterised by identification or security features; printed matter of special format or style not otherwise provided for; devices for use therewith and not otherwise provided for; movable-strip writing or reading apparatus
B42F Sheets temporarily attached together; filing appliances; file cards; indexing
B43K Implements for writing or drawing
B43L Articles for writing or drawing upon; accessories for writing or drawing
B43M Bureau accessories not otherwise provided for
B44B Machines, apparatus or tools for artistic work, e.g. for sculpturing, guilloching, carving, branding or inlaying
B44C Producing decorative effects; mosaics; tarsia work; paperhanging
B44D Painting or artistic drawing, not otherwise provided for; preserving paintings; surface treatment to obtain special artistic surface effects or finishes
B44F Special designs or pictures
B60B Vehicle wheels; castors; axles for wheels or castors; increasing wheel adhesion
B60C Vehicle tyres; tyre inflation; tyre changing; connecting valves to inflatable elastic bodies in general; devices or arrangements related to tyres
B60D Vehicle connections
B60F Vehicles for use both on rail and on road; vehicles capable of travelling in or on different media, e.g. amphibious vehicles
B60G Vehicle suspension arrangements
B60H Arrangements of heating, cooling, ventilating or other air-treating devices specially adapted for passenger or goods spaces of vehicles
B60J Windows, windscreens, non-fixed roofs, doors, or similar devices for vehicles; removable external protective coverings specially adapted for vehicles
B60K Arrangement or mounting of propulsion units or of transmissions in vehicles; arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers in vehicles; auxiliary drives for vehicles; instrumentation or dashboards for vehicles; arrangements in connection with cooling, air intake, gas exhaust or fuel supply of propulsion units in vehicles
B60L Propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles; supplying electric power for auxiliary equipment of electrically-propelled vehicles; electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles in general; magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles; monitoring operating variables of electrically-propelled vehicles; electric safety devices for electrically-propelled vehicles
B60M Power supply lines, or devices along rails, for electrically-propelled vehicles
B60N Seats specially adapted for vehicles; vehicle passenger accommodation not otherwise provided for
B60P Vehicles adapted for load transportation or to transport, to carry, or to comprise special loads or objects
B60Q Arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits therefor, for vehicles in general
B60R Vehicles, vehicle fittings, or vehicle parts, not otherwise provided for
B60S Servicing, cleaning, repairing, supporting, lifting, or manoeuvring of vehicles, not otherwise provided for
B60T Vehicle brake control systems or parts thereof; brake control systems or parts thereof, in general; arrangement of braking elements on vehicles in general; portable devices for preventing unwanted movement of vehicles; vehicle modifications to facilitate cooling of brakes
B60V Air-cushion vehicles
B60W Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function; control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles; road vehicle drive control systems for purposes not related to the control of a particular sub-unit
B61B Railway systems; equipment therefor not otherwise provided for
B61C Locomotives; motor railcars
B61D Body details or kinds of railway vehicles
B61F Rail vehicle suspensions, e.g. underframes, bogies or arrangements of wheel axles; rail vehicles for use on tracks of different width; preventing derailing of rail vehicles; wheel guards, obstruction removers or the like for rail vehicles
B61G Couplings specially adapted for railway vehicles; draught or buffing appliances specially adapted for railway vehicles
B61H Brakes or other retarding devices specially adapted for rail vehicles; arrangement or disposition thereof in rail vehicles
B61J Shifting or shunting of rail vehicles
B61K Auxiliary equipment specially adapted for railways, not otherwise provided for
B61L Guiding railway traffic; ensuring the safety of railway traffic
B62B Hand-propelled vehicles, e.g. hand carts or perambulators; sledges
B62C Vehicles drawn by animals
B62D Motor vehicles; trailers
B62H Cycle stands; supports or holders for parking or storing cycles; appliances preventing or indicating unauthorised use or theft of cycles; locks integral with cycles; devices for learning to ride cycles
B62J Cycle saddles or seats; auxiliary devices or accessories specially adapted to cycles and not otherwise provided for, e.g. article carriers or cycle protectors
B62K Cycles; cycle frames; cycle steering devices; rider-operated terminal controls specially adapted for cycles; cycle axle suspensions; cycle sidecars, forecars, or the like
B62L Brakes specially adapted for cycles
B62M Rider propulsion of wheeled vehicles or sledges; powered propulsion of sledges or cycles; transmissions specially adapted for such vehicles
B63B Ships or other waterborne vessels; equipment for shipping
B63C Launching, hauling-out, or dry-docking of vessels; life-saving in water; equipment for dwelling or working under water; means for salvaging or searching for underwater objects
B63G Offensive or defensive arrangements on vessels; mine-laying; mine-sweeping; submarines; aircraft carriers
B63H Marine propulsion or steering
B63J Auxiliaries on vessels
B64B Lighter-than-air aircraft
B64C Aeroplanes; helicopters
B64D Equipment for fitting in or to aircraft; flight suits; parachutes; arrangements or mounting of power plants or propulsion transmissions in aircraft
B64F Ground or aircraft-carrier-deck installations specially adapted for use in connection with aircraft; designing, manufacturing, assembling, cleaning, maintaining or repairing aircraft, not otherwise provided for; handling, transporting, testing or inspecting aircraft components, not otherwise provided for
B64G Cosmonautics; vehicles or equipment therefor
B64U Unmanned aerial vehicles [uav]; equipment therefor
B65B Machines, apparatus or devices for, or methods of, packaging articles or materials; unpacking
B65C Labelling or tagging machines, apparatus, or processes
B65D Containers for storage or transport of articles or materials, e.g. bags, barrels, bottles, boxes, cans, cartons, crates, drums, jars, tanks, hoppers, forwarding containers; accessories, closures, or fittings therefor; packaging elements; packages
B65F Gathering or removal of domestic or like refuse
B65G Transport or storage devices, e.g. conveyors for loading or tipping, shop conveyor systems or pneumatic tube conveyors
B65H Handling thin or filamentary material, e.g. sheets, webs, cables
B66B Elevators; escalators or moving walkways
B66C Cranes; load-engaging elements or devices for cranes, capstans, winches, or tackles
B66D Capstans; winches; tackles, e.g. pulley blocks; hoists
B66F Hoisting, lifting, hauling, or pushing, not otherwise provided for, e.g. devices which apply a lifting or pushing force directly to the surface of a load
B67B Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers; opening closed containers
B67C Filling with liquids or semiliquids, or emptying, of bottles, jars, cans, casks, barrels, or similar containers, not otherwise provided for; funnels
B67D Dispensing, delivering, or transferring liquids, not otherwise provided for
B68B Harness; devices used in connection therewith; whips or the like
B68C Saddles; stirrups
B68F Making articles from leather, canvas, or the like
B68G Methods, equipment, or machines for use in upholstering; upholstery not otherwise provided for
B81B Microstructural devices or systems, e.g. micromechanical devices
B81C Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of microstructural devices or systems
B82B Nanostructures formed by manipulation of individual atoms, molecules, or limited collections of atoms or molecules as discrete units; manufacture or treatment thereof
B82Y Specific uses or applications of nanostructures; measurement or analysis of nanostructures; manufacture  or treatment of nanostructures
B99Z Subject matter not otherwise provided for in this section